Neologisms of Russian Language

As far as language is always developing, it can't spare without neologisms. Neologisms are words or word expressions, which appeared in speech relatively not long ago and are still new for native speakers.


Prefix "нео" /neo/, which came fr om Greek adjective «νέος» (new) points out the newness of such words as neologisms or newness  of their meanings.


However, the destiny of neologisms isn't too long. Neologisms lose their newness with time, they move from passive dictionary to active and are not considered neologisms anymore. This points to the fact that neologisms in language change all the time. More usual neologisms stop being considered neologisms, but their place is usually taken by new, more recent words, the words, which earn the status of neologisms.


Neologisms are the means of word stock enrichment in language in certain historical periods and stages of language formation. Neologisms resident in any modern language, spoken by people in everyday life. Only dead languages are deficient in neologisms, however, it's sure enough that even they could have neologisms on certain stage of development.


According to the statisctics, decades of thousands of neologisms appear every year in developed languages. Herewith, as fate has willed, the majority are rapidly included to colloquial speech and quickly become its inceparable part.


Types of Neologisms

It should be mentioned, that neologisms can be of common langauge, in other words newly borrowed or newly formed, and authorial, which are also called individually-stylistic.


The former are those appearing in language together with rise of new realities in life of society. The following words can be also reffered to common langauge neologisms: мерчендайзер /merchandiser/, фейк /fake/, копирайтер /copywriter/, супервайзер /supervisor/, коуч /coach/, Интернет /the Internet/, рунет /Runet/, голкипер /goalkeeper/, селфи /selfie/, селф-лайкинг /self-liking/, сталкер /stalker/ etc.


Semantic neologisms, which express already existing words that have got new meanings in language in connection with changing of some realities displayed by language, are also reffered to common langauge neologisms. We can name a lot of them: зебра /zebra crossing/ (not an animal, but stripes of crosswalk on traffic way), челнок /suitcase trader/ (not vessel, but petty dealer, bringing commodities from alien territory), Макинтош /Macintosh/ (not a cape, but computer).


Authorial neologisms are created as a rule by writers or poets, as well as political or public representatives, that's why such neologisms always have certain author. These words are attached to the special context. Authorial neologisms always differ with unusualness and originality.


Pushkin (полумилорд, полукупец), Mayakovnkiy (фырки, громадьё, декабрый, голоштанный, дрыгоножество, сердцелюдый), Khlebnikov (восторгокрылый, изнеможденный), Saltykov-Shchedrin (белибердоносец, головотяп, злопыхательство, мягкотелость), Chingiz Aytmatov (когдатошний, путанка, кайфануть, утопщик), V. Kachan (распиаренное тело, трансуха), A. Vayner (лицемерин, шансовитый, дурочина-сложнофиля) used such kind of neologisms. There are quite a few authorial neologisms, which sometimes are included into our everyday speech and become a part of word stock. Musicians and singers also often create neologisms, using them in the songs.


Very often authorial neologisms add certain savour and freshness into language. Sometimes they can stay in a literary writing, wh ere they were used, and sometimes they pass into colloquial speech, and become a part of active word stock.


Little children, who manage to contrive just amazing unexisting words, also often become creators of authorial neologisms. Such words are reffered to physiological neologisms by linguists. For instance, the following words can be exampes of this type: гудильник (instead of будильник), ядовитый океан (instead of северо-ледовитый океан), пристукник (instead of преступник), взадник (instead of всадник), отурокиться (instead of закончить урок), укрывало (instead of покрывало), гениальная уборка (instead of генеральная уборка).


Due to neologisms implementation into speech, language is able to improve and develop all the time, and also to keep up with the times, expressing new notions appearing in language.

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