English Words in Russian Language

Я креативный мерчандайзер! /I'm a creative merchandizer!/ Всем респект! /Respect to everybody!/ Сегодня уик-энд и я готовлюсь к отличному драйву! /It's a weekend today, and I'm getting ready for an excellent drive!/ С утра фитнес, далее ланч с тостами и беконом /Fitness in the morning, then tosts and bacon for lunch/. Открываю лэптоп /I'm opening my laptop/. Что за флуд, кто-то хакнул мой Е-мэйл /What's the flood, someone hacked my e-mail/. Хотел поюзать в нете, а трафика нет /I wanted to use the net, but traffic is absent/. Идем тратить мани с моей бэби /We're going to spend money with my baby/. Вначале шопинг /Shopping at first/. Только гламурные бутики /Only glamorous boutiques/. Далее лифтинг с пилингом /Then lifting and pilling/. Вечером приватное пати с крутыми ди-джеями в известном пабе /Private party with cool djs in famous pub in the evening/.

People of older generation will hardly understand, what this creative merchandizer meant! But this exact line of thought style is the trend of time! It's quite the thing, it's prestigious, convenient! The expansion of Americanisms and Anglicisms in Russian language lately bewilders an ordinary inhabitant. If it will go on, a cultural disaster should be expected. It's a pity, but a lot of teenagers (тинейдежеры), boyfriends (бой-френды) and girls (герлы), wishing to flaunt their knowledge of foreign language, use some words, real meaning, pronunciation or sounding of which they either do not know or, by force of circumstances, will never even know.

How should we treat Americanisms and Anglicisms in Russian language? Do they enrich our language? Where did they come from? Why does their popularity grow?

Implantation of Foreign Words

First Anglicisms appeared in Russian speech in the 19th century, but their quantity was heretofore insignificant, and it almost didn't influence Russian language. The expansion started after 1990-s, when foreign words flooded to Russia with the demise of communism. Such Anglicism as: ваучер /voucher/, оффшор /offshore/, дефолт /default/, импичмент /impeachment/ or маркетинг /marketing/ were not just modern, but also smelled of Western freedom.

Borrowings from one language to another is a practice familiar to all countries of the world. This is normal occurrence, under the condition when such words are used grammatically correctly and moderately. What is happening today in Russian is an evident overshoot!

To start with, let's find out how English words fix in Russian. The reasons of such implementation are as follows:

1) Homogeneity of sounding and meaning both in Russian and English:

Тинэйджер /teenager/, уик-энд /weekend/, мани /money/.

2) Hybrid words, prefix, ending or suffix of which are Russian:

creative - креатив – креативный

busy – беспокоится - бузить

3) Phonetic and graphic identity (calque and half-calque)

Бар /bar/, вирус /virus/, доктор /doctor/, меню /menu/ and so on.

The example of half-calque: Сегодня уик-энд и я готовлюсь к отличному драйву! /It is weekend today, and I'm getting ready to excellent drive!/ English word drive is transformed into Russian grammar form - драйву.

4) Exoticisms

So-called borrowings, related to American or English cultural, ethnic or religious traditions or customs:

Хот-дог /hot dog/, биг-мак /big mac/, гамбургер /hamburger/, чизбургер /cheeseburger/.

5) Composite words

Variants, when two English words are pronounced as a whole:

Супермаркет /supermarket/, гипермаркет /hypermarket/, секонд-хенд /second hand/.

6) Barbarisms or inclusions

Known to everyone Ок, Way.

7) Argotic words and expressions

Крезанутый from crazy – сумасшедший /mad/

клёвый from clever – умный /smart/

Some of argotic Anglicisms: лавер – любовник /lover/, фанат – болельщик /fan/, дедлайн – крайний срок /deadline/, лузер – неудачник /loser/.

Why Such a Popularity

The main reason of popularity is fashion for English. It is international language, and it is no wonder that it becomes popular both in East European countries and countries of Asia and Near East.

The majority of Anglicisms comes to our speech through television. American films, music videos, music, talk-show and programs, they all carry a huge amount of Americanisms into our language. Advertising slogans, Internet societies, sport and cosmetics, everything is saturated by them. Хит /hit/, сингл /single/, бодибилдинг /body building/, пауэрлифтинг /power lifting/, ремейк /remake/, дайвинг /diving/, байкер /biker/, тайм-аут /time-out/, сноуборд /snowboard/, скелетон /skelleton/, секьюрити /security/, продюсер /producer/, кроссворд /crossword/, постер /poster/, имидж /image/. We can go on and on.

They affect our daily routine. I switch on mixer (миксер) or toaster (тостер). I buy things in second hand (секонд-хенде). I wear jeans (джинcы) and shoes (шузы). I eat lunch (ланч). I like wreckers (крекеры) and chips (чипсы).

They affect our work. I flip on notebook computer (ноутбук). I do a printed listing on printer (принтере). I enter the Internet (интернет). I use xerox (ксероксом), scanner (сканером), and plotter (плоттером).

They affect our life. Goalkeeper (голкипер) in soccer, provider (провайдер) in trade, impeachment (импичмент) in politics, gadget (гаджет) in cell-phone, play-off (плейофф) in hockey, fleshmob (флешмоб) on the square, smartphone (смартфон) in the pocket, coach (коуч) at the lesson, bonus (бонус) on buying, spoiler (спойлер) on the car, boy friend (бой-френд) near entrance, speaker (спикер) in the parliament, jazz (джаз) in the headphones.

Anglicisms have become a part of our language. If we don't want to gain the character of illiterates, it is important and necessary to use them. However, we should know how to do it, when and with whom!


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