Passive voice

To form passive verb construction you need to look at this verb if it was used in the active verb construction.

1) If in active verb construction the verb is in Imperfective aspect (IPFV), then in order to form passive you need to add -СЯ at the end of IPFV verb.

Activ = IPFV Passive = IPFV + СЯ
Люди исследуют (IPFV) космос.
People are exploring space.
Люди исследовали (IPFV) космос.
People explored space.
Люди будут исследовать (IPFV) космос.
People will explore space.
Космос исследуется людьми.
Space is being explored by people.
Космос исследовался людьми.
Space was explored by people.
Космос будет исследоваться людьми.
Space will be explored by people

2) If in active verb construction the verb is in Perfective aspect (PFV), then in order to form passive you need to change a verb to short form participle.

Activ = PFV
Passive = short form participle
Я испекла (PFV) пирог
I baked a pie.
Я испеку (PFV) пирог.
I will bake a pie.
Пирог (был) испечён мной.
A pie was baked by me.
Пирог (будет) испечён мной.
A pie will be baked by me.

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