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Particle and conjunction ЖЕ

"Же" [zh'e] is a simple particle i.e. the particle which is composed of one word. And inasmuch as it is a distinctive word, the particle "же" is always used apart with other words.

The main functions of the particle "Же":
- emphasizing a following word (it can be a various part of speech: e.g. verb or pronoun);
- marking the similarity, sameness.

For example:
Дайте же мне сесть! - Let me sit after all!

In this case the particle "же" empasizes the verb "дайте" and means eagerness and active expression of a speaker's will, strong request or persistence.

В доме стоял такой же холод, как снаружи. - It was cold as in the room as outside.

Here the particle "Же" implies the meaning of similarity, sameness of quantity. In other words, we might say: "В доме холодно как снаружи" - It's cold in the room as outside, "В доме и снаружи одинаково холодно" - It's cold in the room as well as outside.

There is a short form of the particle "Же" - "Ж". There is actually no difference between them in the usage. But it's more preferable to use the particle "Же", if it sounds euphonically.

For example:
Я же говорил, что пойдет дождь = Я ж говорил, что пойдет дождь. - I've just said you that it would be raining.
Мы же не знали, что так сильно опоздаем = Мы ж не знали, что так сильно опоздаем. - We just didn't know that we would be late for so long.
У нас же не бесконечный запас времени, чтобы тратить его понапрасну. - After all, we don't have endless time to waste it.
(It is inexpedient to use "Ж" in the last example because we can get unpronounceablу phrase).

If we use the particle "Же" as a conjunction, it would mean opposition of one clause to another. For example:
Все ушли домой, я же остался на работе. - Everybody went home but I stayed at work.
Во время путешествий многие отдыхают, я же устаю. - Many people relax during traveling but I always get tired.

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