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Declension of adjectives

Declension of adjectives is their changing in cases, gender and number. As for declension, adjectives in Russian can be divided into two types: declinable and indeclinable.

1. Declinable adjectives include most of adjectives, for example expressing characteristics: names of most colors (красный - red, фиолетовый - velvet, жёлтый - yellow), size (маленький - small, большой - big), quality (весёлый - funny, умный - smart). Their changing depends on their group. There are qualitative, relative and possessive adjectives; the first two groups are declined in the same way according to the basic declension of adjectives.

There are three types of adjectives' declension which depend on their stem:

- hard (новый - new, огромный - giant)
- soft (внутренний - inner, синий - dark blue)
- combined (легкий - easy, сухой - dry)

Here are the examples on declension of adjectives of masculine and feminine genders, singular (hard and soft stems as the most common ones):

Declension of adjectives with hard stem.

Nom. Удивительный - Удивительная [Udivitel'nyy - Udivitel'naya] - Amazing
Gen. Удивительного - Удивительной [Udivitel'nava - Udivitel'noy]
Dat. Удивительному - Удивительной [Udivitel'namu - Udivitel'noy]
Acc. Удивительный (удивительного) - Удивительная (удивительную) [Udivitel'nyy - Udivitel'naya]
Inst. Удивительным - Удивительной [[Udivitel'nym - Udivitel'noy]
Prep. Удивительном - Удивительной [Udivitel'nam - Udivitel'noy]

Declension of adjectives with soft stem.

Nom. Завтрашний - Завтрашняя [Zaftrashniy - Zaftrashnyaya] - Tomorrow's
Gen. Завтрашнего - Завтрашней [Zaftrashnivo - Zaftrashney]
Dat. Завтрашнему - Завтрашней [Zaftrashnemu - Zaftrashney]
Acc. Завтрашний (завтрашнего) - Завтрашняя (завтрашней) [Zaftrashniy - Zaftrashnyaya]
Inst. Завтрашним - Завтрашней [Zaftrashnim - Zaftrashney]
Prep. Завтрашнем - Завтрашней [Zaftrashnem - Zaftrashney]

2. Indeclinable adjectives are those adjectives which are not changed in cases, gender and number. They are also characterized by the fact that they do not form the short form (due to their own shortness) and we cannot form the simple comparative degree.

These are, for example, colors: хаки - khaki, беж - beige, индиг - anil.
Sizes: миди - midi, макси - maxi.

As these words are not changed, they express their agreement with a noun with their positioning near it, not before a noun, but after it.

Штаны хаки - Khaki trousers.
Словарь хинди - Hindi dictionary.
Яйцо вкрутую - Hard-boiled egg.
Магазин напротив - A shop opposite.

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