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Prefixes' functions in combination with verbs of motion

In this article we are going to analyze the functions of prefixes in combination with verbs of motion. The topic on verbs of motion is difficult enough and the great number of prefixes only complicates it. But you should always remember that a language is logic and everything there has its own meaning. If you don't know all the pairs of motion verbs and don't practise them a lot, you should deal only with one-two verbs in this article.

Well, let's analyze how prefixes change verbs' meaning. We will use the word "object" in our description. It can be anything that participates in our motion or is its "witness": a house, mountain, bridge etc.

Prefixes В- [v], ВО- [vo] mean:
moving into an object or moving up (with certain verbs).

Ученик вошел в класс (verb "идти" [iti]) - A student entered the classroom.
Трактор въехал на гору (verb "ехать" [yekhat']) - A tractor goes up the mountain.

Prefix ВЗ- [vz] (ВС- [vs], ВЗО- [vzo]) means moving up.

Мы должны взойти на эту гору (verb "идти" [iti]) - We should climb that mountain.

Prefix ВЫ- [vy] means:
moving from inside an object;
absence (on the condition that a subject will come back soon);
departure (on the condition that we know departure time).

Ученик вышел из класса (verb "идти" [iti]) - A student came out of the classroom.
Мужчина вышел покурить (verb "идти" [iti]) - A man went out for a smoke.
Мы выезжаем через десять минут (verb "ехать" [yekhat']) - We are leaving in ten minutes.

Prefix ПРИ- [pri] means achieving the goal.
Мы приехали на море (verb "идти" [iti]) - We came to the seaside.

Prefix ПРО- [pro] means:
moving through something;
moving by something;
quantitative result of movement.

Чтобы попасть на рынок, нужно пройти два квартала (verb "идти" [iti]) - To get to the market, you need to pass two blocks.
Не проходите мимо (verb "идти" [iti]) - Don't pass by.
За день мы прошли больше двадцати километров (verb "идти" [iti]) - We went over twelve kilometers today.

Prefix ПЕРЕ- [p'er'e] means movement from one place to another. And accomplished short action describing movement.
Он перешел через мост (с одного берега на другойfrom one shore to another) (verb "идти" [iti]) - He crossed the bridge.

Prefix ПО- [po] means the beginning of movement or the intention to move in future.

Утром я проснусь и пойду на работу (verb "идти" [iti]) - I will wake up in the morning and go to work.
Летом мы поедем на море (verb "ехать" [yekhat']) - We will go to the sea in summer.
Перед сном полезно походить на свежем воздухе (verb "ходить" [khadit']) - It's useful to take fresh air before going to bed.

Prefix У- [u] means moving away for quite long period of time.
Мне надоела вечеринка и я ушел домой (verb "идти" [iti]) - I'd fed up with the party and went home.

Prefix ПОД- [pod] (ПОДО- [podo]) means approaching (on the condition that it's a small distance).
Парень подошел к девушке и пригласил танцевать (verb "идти" [iti]) - A young man came to a young woman and asked her for dance.

Prefix ОТ- [ot] (ОТО- [oto]) means moving away (on the condition that it's a small distance).
Когда начался дождь, мы отошли под дерево (verb "идти" [iti]) - When it become raining, we went under the tree.

Prefix ДО- [do] means moving to a certain place.
Была сильная гроза, я кое-как дошел до дома (verb "идти" [iti]) - It was terrible storm, I barely reached my house.

Prefix ЗА- [za] means:
movement which makes a subject to be behind something;
movement with a stop;
movement to some place for awhile.

Он зашел за угол и понял, что заблудился (verb "идти" [iti]) - He'd passed the corner and realized that he got lost.
По дороге домой я зашел в магазин и купил хлеб (глагол "идти") - On my way to home I went to the store and bought bread.
Заходите к нам в гости (verb "ходить" [khadit']) - Come round sometimes.

Prefix О- [o] (ОБ- [ob], ОБО- [obo]) means:
moving around;
a long movement in some object.

Он обошел вокруг дома в поисках ключей (verb "идти" [iti]) - He went around his house looking for keys.
Во время прогулки мы обошли весь парк (verb "идти" [iti]) - We passed around a whole park during our walk.

Prefix С- [s] (СО- [so]) means:
moving down. It is used in combination with the endings -СЯ [sya], -СЬ [s'];
accomplished movement back and forth.

К вечеру мы сошли с холма (verb "идти" [iti]) - We came down from the hill by evening.
Я сходил в магазин за молоком (verb "ходить" [khadit']) - I went to the shop for milk.

Prefix РАЗ- [raz] (РАС- [ras], РАЗО- [raso]) means movement in different directions. It is used in combination with the endings -СЯ [sya], -СЬ [s'].
Уже поздно, время расходиться по домам (verb "ходить" [khadit']) - It's getting late, we should go home.

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