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Parenthetical structures

Parenthetical structures are the word combinations or sentences which help to express our attitude towards the words we have said.

We emphasize parenthetical structures with intonation in oral speech. We make a short pause before a parenthetical structure and a short pause after it. We also pronounce a parenthetical structure a little bit faster than the phrase which contains it.

As for writing, we emphasize a parenthetical structure either with commas (if it's written in the middle of a phrase, then we emphasize from two sides), dash or brackets.

Parenthetical structures can be divided into groups according to their meaning.

1. Degree of confidence in a statement.

- high degree of confidence:

конечно [kaneshna] - of course, разумеется [razumeitsa] - certainly, бесспорно [bissporna] - unquestionably, несомненно [nisamnenna] - undoubtedly, без сомнения [bes samneniya] - without doubt, действительно [deystvitel'na] - really/indeed.

- low degree of confidence:

кажется [kazhitsya] - it seems to be, вероятно [virayatna] - probably, может быть [mozhet byt'] - maybe, возможно [vazmozhna] - perhaps, пожалуй [pazhaluy] - possibly.

2. Different feelings.

К счастью [shchast'yu] - fortunately, к сожалению [k sazhileniyu] - unfortunately, к несчастью [k nishast'yu] - unfortunately, к удивлению [k udivleniyu] - surprisingly.

3. Sources of information.

По словам [po slavam] - according to, по мнению [pa mneniyu] - in ones opinion, как сообщают [kak saabshchauyt] - as reported, говорят [gavaryat] - they say, поговаривают [pagavarivayut] - they say.

4. Ways of expressing opinion.

Одним словом [adnim slovom] - in a word, проще говоря [proshche gavarya] - simply put, иначе говоря [inache gavarya] - in other words, лучше сказать [luchshe skazat'] - it's better to say, правильнее сказать [pravil'nee skazat'] - it's more accurate to say that.

5. Order of thoughts.

Во-первых [va-pervykh] - firstly, во-вторых [va ftarykh] - secondly, в-третих [f tret'ikh] - thirdly, наконец [nakanets] - finally, следовательно [sledavatil'na] - therefore, значит [znachit] - then, итак [itak] - so, напротив [naprotiv] - on the contrary, например [naprimer] - for example, таким образом [takim obrazam] - thus.

Entire sentences can also fulfill the functions of parenthetical structures. We also emphasize them with commas, dash or brackets.

Эта книга, я уверен, вам очень понравится - I'm sure you'll like this book.

Мы хотим квартиру с балконом — это было бы идеально — кондиционером - We would like an apartment with balcony - it would be perfect - and an air-conditioner.

"Я уверен" (I'm sure) and "это было бы идеально" (it would be perfect) are parenthetical structures here, which express attitude of a speaker towards his words.

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