Category of aspect together with such categories as gender and case causes the greatest complicacy among foreigners.
Aspect is a grammar categoty of verb, which expresses differences in action development. This category is peculiar for any verb in its conjugatable and non-conjugated forms. There are imperfective verbs and perfective verbs. Perfective form, derived from an imperfective verb, is called a correlate.
Usually, correlative pairs are just memorized by students, for example:
писать - написать /to write - to have written/
читать - прочитать /to read - to have read/
The particular difficulity in memorizing double perfective correlates for some Russian verbs exists. What are double perfective corellates? Let's take a look at the following examples:
the verb "учить" /to teach/ in the meaning "to pass on your experience, your skills to somebody" has a perfective correlate "научить" /to have taught/
the verb "научить" /to have taught/ is transitive, and an animate noun is an object of its action, to which an experience is passed on + a second object in Dative case (the 4th case), denoting what a subject tries to teach.
Мама научила меня рисовать /Mom has taught me to draw/. In this example the perfective verb "научила" /has taught/ has in its possession two objects: "меня" /me/ (animate object) and "рисовать" /to draw/ (what was taught).
However, the verb "учить" /to study/ in the meaning "to memorize, to learn" has the other perfective correlate "выучить" /to have studied/
the verb "выучить" /to have studied/ is transitive, and a noun denoting subject matter to be remembered is an object of its action.
Я выучила вчера все новые слова /I have learned all new words yesterday/. In this example perfective verb "выучила" /have learned/ has in its possession an object "все новые слова" /all new words/.
While studying Russian, difficulties in memorizing double perfective correlates can arise at any stage of learning the language. These correlates can be distinguished with the help of different contexts or by doing some exercises on using these correlates.
-Вика учила меня рисовать /Vika taught me to draw/.
-Как она смогла .......... тебя рисовать? /How could she ... to draw?/
(the correlate "научить" /to have taught/ meaning to pass on experience should be used)
-Ты сделала вчера все уроки? /Have you done all the hometask yesterday?/
-Да, я смогла ........ все новые слова /Yes, I managed ... all new words/.
(the correlate "выучить" /to have learned/ meaning to memorize should be used)