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Zarrina

Declension of plural nouns

Hello, dear student!
We have analyzed the declension of singular nouns in previous articles. Today we are going to analyze the plural form which also has its own features.

We form plural nouns by adding the endings -а, -я,-и, -ы - [a], [ya], [i], [y] - in nominative case, for example:

Столы, камни, платья, окна
[staly], [kamni], [plat'ya], [okna] - Tables, stones, dresses, windows.

Nominative есть Что? - there are what? Столы [Staly]
Genitive нет Чего? - there are no what? Столов [Stalov]
Dative дарю Чему? - give to what? Столам [Stalam]
Accusative вижу Что? - see what? Столы [Staly]
Instrumental горжусь Чем? - proud of what? Столами [Stalami]
Prepositional думаю О чем? - think about what? О столах [O stalakh]

To define the case of a plural noun, you should look at the question, preposition or subordinate part of a sentence. For example,
Nouns in accusative case are always subordinate parts of a sentence.

Мужчины разгружают товары в магазине [Muschiny razgruzhayut tavary v magazin'e] - Men are unloading goods in the shop - unloading (что? what?) goods (Accusative case because of the question "что").

Plural nouns have the following endings in case declension:

In genitive case, feminine: -ей [ey] or zero ending.
Кого?/Чего? - вещей (вещь [v'eshch'] (thing) - feminine, singular)

Masculine and neuter genders: -ов/-ев [ov/ev] or zero ending.
Чего? - стульев/учеников - (стул [stul] (a chair) - masculine, singular; ученик [uchinil] (a student) - masculine, singular)

In dative case they have the endings: -ам/ям [am/yam]
Кому? Чему? - голубям/вещам (вещь - [v'eshch'] (thing) - feminine, singular; голубь [golub'] (a pigeon) - masculine, with zero ending)

In instrumental case: -ами/-ями [ami/yami]
Кем?Чем? голубями/вещами

In prepositional case: -ах/ях [akh/yakh]
О ком? О чем? О голубях / о вещах

Most endings of neuter gender are zero in genitive case, e.g:

Дел, училищ, сёл [del], [uchilishch], [s'yol] - businesses, colleges, villages.

There are precious little words of neuter gender ending with a soft consonant (except for "й" [y], "ч" [ch] and "щ" [shch]): поле, море, горе [pol'e], [mor'e], [gor'e] - a field, grief, the sea.

They have the ending -ей in genitive case: морей [mar'ey], полей [pal'ey]. There are also few words with "ч" [ch]: плечо, вече [plicho], [veche] - a shoulder, Veche. Their forms are: плеч [pl'ech'], веч [v'ech'] (also "вечей" [vich'ey]). Also: очей (from "око") [achey] - eyes.

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