Hello, dear student!
Today I would like to give consideration to the topic on verbs of motion because verbs of motion vary fr om language to language - they have different meanings and prepositions which we use with these verbs. Sometimes we use one preposition, in some languages we don't even notice it - the same has been happening in the Russian language. We had also had such difficulties with my students, that's why I've decided to discuss it with you, especially with those who study the language on their own.
Well, there are a lot of verbs of motion in Russian, so we will try to deal with the most common ones:
1. Verbs with the prefix -при [-pri] + preposition в/на [v/na] followed by noun in accusative case
Приехать [priekhat'] + в + noun in accusative case: Мы уже приехали в Москву [My uzhe priekhali v Maskvu] - We have already arrived in Moscow.
This example shows that the verb "приехать" (arrive in) means action which implies visiting of some place, and you can arrive in this place by means of any transport: subway, train, bus or even car. If you come to any place, most often you use the preposition -в [v] and put the place in accusative case (во что? в Москву - where? in Moscow).
Прийти [priyti] + на + noun in accusative case: Мы пришли на концерт [My prishli na kantsert] - We came to a concert.
The example shows that the verb "пришли" (came) (in the past tense) means that we have come on our foot, without any transport. Also you can see the preposition -на [na], which means that the action is directed to an object and that you'll be on the ground or area wh ere the performance will take place. This preposition is followed by the noun "концерт" [kantsert] (consert) in accusative (пришли на что? На концерт - came to what? To a concert).
2. Verbs with the prefix -у [u] + preposition из/с [iz/s] followed by noun in accusative case
Они уже уехали из города [Ani uzhe uekhali is gorada] - They have already left the city.
In this example we see the verb "уехали" [uekhali] (left) in the past tense with the prefix -у [u] followed by the preposition -из [iz] and noun "города" [gorada] (из чего? left what?) in genitive case. When we mean "to leave some place, especially on transport", we use the preposition "-из".
Ребята ушли с концерта [Ribyata ushli s kantserta] - The guys left the concert
In this case we have the verb "уходить" [ukhadit'] which means the action that we make when we don't use any transport and go on foot. The verb is followed by the preposition "c" [s] and the noun "концерта" [kantserta] in genitive case (с чего? [s chivo?]).
3. Verbs with the prefix -до [do] and preposition -до [do] + noun in genitive case
These are the most common type of verbs in Russian. If you understand them correctly, you will be definitely understood by Russian-speaking people. Let's look at the example:
Наш корабль доплыл до берега и развалился на части [Nash karabl' daplyl da berega i razvalilsya na chasti] - Our ship arrived at the shore and broke to pieces.
Here we have the verb in the past tense "доплыл" [daplyl] (arrived) with the prefix "до" which means that it is complete action i.e. the ship has not only arrived but completed its trip with obstacles and maybe breakage or load. The verb is followed by the preposition "до" which means that the ship has completed its trip to certain place, usually to final point, and then we have the noun "берега" [berega] (до чего? - to what?) in genitive case.
4. Verbs with the prefix -об /обо [ob/obo] and noun in accusative case
В такую погоду нужно обходить большие лужи [V takuyu pagodu nuzhna abkhadit' bal'shie luzhi] - You need to bypass big puddles in such kind of weather
In this example we have the verb "обходить" [abkhadit'] (bypass) with the prefix "об" which shows that we should not only walk but try not to get into puddles, we should bypass them, make a detour or take another route without any puddles. The noun "лужи" [luzhi] (puddles) is in accusative case.
5. Verbs with the prefix -об [ob] and preposition "вокруг" [vakrug] + noun in genitive case
Чтобы добраться до моего дома, вам нужно объехать вокруг моста [Shtobi dabrat'sya do maevo doma, vam nuzhna ab''ekhat' vakrug masta] - To reach my house, you need to go around the bridge
Here we have the verb "объехать" [ab'ekhat'] (go around) which has the same meaning as the verb "обойти" [abayti] (go round) with the only difference that we can "объехать" only by means of transport and "обойти" - on foot.