All verbs of motion are usually divided into two groups:
- verbs of the group "идти" [iti]
- verbs of the group "ходить" [khadit']
Let's give consideration to the functions of these verbs, when they are used without prefixes. The verbs are used in imperfective aspect, and you can visualize it the following way:
- way fr om the point А to the point B (group "идти")
- way from the point A to B and backwards (group "ходить").
Well, the verbs of the group "идти" mean:
1. Action made at the moment we are speaking about it. We can not use the word "сейчас" but just imply it. The word "вот" sometimes denote current moment, as well as a context.
Я иду в школу - I'm going to school.
Смотрите, вот идёт наш учитель - Look, our teacher is coming.
Я вижу, как мой друг идёт по футбольному полю - I see how my friend is crossing a football ground.
(in last example it's clear from the context that action is taking place now - "я вижу").
2. Motion at a certain direction.
Я шёл в кино, когда встретил друга - I was going to cinema, when I met my friend.
The verbs of the group "ходить" mean:
1. Regular or occasional action connected with motion. The adverbs of time can indicate it (часто - often, редко - seldom).
Мы каждый день ходим в университет - We go to university everyday.
Она часто ездит на море - She often goes to the sea.
2. Motion at indeterminate directions.
Мы много ездим по Европе - We roam Europe many times.
Собаки бегают по двору - Dogs are running in the yard.
3. Motion with returning (we say wh ere an object was).
Днём я ходил за хлебом - I went to buy bread in the afternoon.
4. Knowledge and skills connected with motion.
Ребёнок рано научился ходить - A child learned how to walk early.