Hello, dear student! Today we are going to talk about verbs in Russian, which help us to describe actions connected with building or establishing of something. I suppose, they are mostly connected with historical facts or history itself. Anyway, you should know these verbs, for example, in the cases when someone asks you to describe any historical building in your country or native city or asks when and who has established your city or the city you now live in. It's rather good when a foreigner or Russian-language learner can say "построил" [pastroil] (built), but it's not enough, you cannot use the same verb several times - it makes your speech poor and not diverse. Let's look at some examples:
Основывать [asnovyvat'] - to establish - we use this verb, when we need to tell about the beginning of something, when, for example, a city, harbour or any establishment was found.
Эта больница была основана одной женщиной в послевоенное время [Ekhta bal'nitsa byla asnovana adnoj zhensshinaj f posle vaenae vremya] - This hospital was established/found by one woman in a post-war time
This verb can also have another meaning, which denotes the action that is based on certain facts or scientific statements, for example:
Мой друг сказал, что я должен основывать свои выводы на чём-то важном [Moj drug skazal, shto ya dolzhin asnovyvat' svai vyvady na chyom -ta vazhnam] - My friend told me that I have to base my conclusions on something important.
Этот фильм основан на реальных событиях [Ekhtat film asnovan na ryal'nykh sabytiyakh] - This movie is based on real facts.
Note, the verb "основывать" is always followed by a noun; we can ask the following question: основывать (что?) больницу - to establish (what?) a hospital, основан (на чём?) на событиях - to be based on (what?) events
Соорудить или сооружать [saarudit'/saaruzhat'] to construct - this verb shows that something has been constructing/constructed, for example:
Эту статую соорудили в советское время [ekhtu statuyu saarudili f savetskoe vremya] - This statue was constructed in the Soviet period
Я сказала Саше соорудить домик из спичек [Ya skazala Sashe saarudit' domik iz spichik] - I told Sasha to construct/build the house from matches.
Воздвигнуть или воздвигать [vazdvignut'/vazdvigat'] to erect - it is an interesting verb that you can see in the poem by probably the most famous Russian poet A. Pushkin ""Я памятник себе воздвиг.." (I've built myself a monument). The verb denotes the action connected with building but an object was built with many efforts and become great in the end. For example:
На этом месте хотят воздвигнуть мост [Na ekhtam meste khatyat vazdvignut' most] - Here/in this place is going to be the bridge.